Two necessary steps were needed before based on some degree of interpersonal compatibility could occur One step was to accentuate the legal political and economic advance of women so that the new would increasingly become a of equals; though to be sure full equality would not be achieved by the turn of the century A second necessity was to create an environment in which boys and girls would have time and leisure to interact a primary requisite for developing interpersonal compatibility In Medieval Times In D-FW Greater Metroplex & Looking Affordable Wedding Photography? "Catholic tradition has consistently opposed many varieties of sexual expression - it condemns premarital and extramarital relationships re following divorce and all types of deviant sexual practices including oral and anal intercourse (either homosexual or heterosexual) and masturbation - and classifies them as grievous sins." "These three factors - the continuity of the socioeconomic environment the continuing identification of the erotic with the sacred and the inertia of the law and its institutions - not only help to explain the continuity of medieval sexual teaching but are useful in understanding the historical development of that teaching itself." When the loss of a woman's chastity was forced she could get compensation with the help of family and friends to argue her case A man who assaulted a 14 year old girl was forced to pay a fee to the Chamberlain who would keep it until the victim either arrived at full age or married The man was stripped of his citizenship and forced to leave the city His severe punishment shows the concern of the city government for at least the respectible young women of the city (Hanawalt 122) Whole Costumer's Catalog PO Box 207 Beallsville PA 15313 Carolina Stitches in Time Box 10933 Winston-Salem N.C 27108 (919) 764-0790 2 John Page and Agnes his wife appear through their attorney John Chupm' against John Baker in a plea of a broken covenant alleging that the aforesaid John [Baker] sold to Agnes Page John Page's wife one Matilda John [Baker's] wife for one pig (cost 3 shillings) of which pig John Baker took pssession and with which he was well contented Later the said John came and sought to have his wife back and he gave ("daret") Agnes 2 shillings and on this he produces suit And the aforesaid John Baker denies force and injury and says that he broke no covenant to him and detained no money from him foir the abovesaid reason and he seeks an inquiry and the said Agnes does so too Therefore etc [m. the marital debt created a parity of rights and obligations between spouses Each had an equal right to demand that it be paid; each had an equal obligation to comply with the other's demands Equality of the sexes in meant equality in the bed but not outside of it Just as each spouse was entitled to sexual service from the other on demand so each was entitled to require sexual fidelity from the other Neither had a right to seek sexual fulfillment outside of even if the other party was for example absent or ill and thus sexually unavailable This was an age when peasant women toiled in the fields female serfs aspired to be household servents and women of all classes could be forced into and out of s Educating girls was often considered a waste of time; even Saint Thomas Aquinas claimed that "woman is defective and misbegotten" (IBID ) (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. Always wear a precious stone in a ring; hold a crystal in your mouth; for the virtue of precious stones is great Eat only twice a day Don't drink between dinner and supper Don't have one fixed hour for your meals In Winter eat in hot well-aired places Fast for a day now and then Eat more at supper than dinner "the troubadours resembled Arab singer not only in sentiment and character but also in the very forms of their minstrelsy Certain titles which these Provencal singers gave to their songs are but translation from Arabic titles." - Philip K Hitti History of the Arabs Until fairly recent times in Western society was regarded as too important a family matter to be entrusted to nubile inexperienced youths As sociologist William Goode notes "Kinfolk or immediate family can disregard the question of who marries whom only if a is not seen as a link between kin lines only if no property power lineage honor totemic relationships and the like are believed to flow from the kin lines through the spouses to their offspring." The parents' role was to be alert to the unwanted presence of lust passion or "love" in their offspring which might lead them into deleterious connections Another fascinating story from this book is called On Rising Diet and Going to Bed (from Sir John Darington's "Schoole of Salerne," 2nd part The Perserbation of Health or a Dyet for the Healthfull Man 1624 p 358 It is also translated below On rising empty your bladder and belly nose and lungs Cleanse your whole body Say your Prayers Walk gently go to stool Work in the forenoon Translation by Paul Hyams of Cornell University Domestic Violence in the Middle Ages by Sharon Carroll When Normans invaded England in 1066 William the Conquerer set forth ten laws as the new king The first were concerned with religion then loyalty to the crown then murder William's policy regarding murder was to seize the offender or have the town pay forty-six silver marks to the crown if the case went unsolved(Laws of William the Conquerer 1066,World. With Christianity came a different perspective was now a sacrament instituted by God and therefore something that concerned both church and society outside the two families Mutual consent was demanded and the husband was expected to be faithful These were new ideas Medieval wedding ceremonies Moreover the testicles and the blood of a dunghill cock was to be hidden under the marital bed before a sexual encounter to prevent conception (Tannahill 128) Finally after intercourse had taken place women inserted pepper into the mouth of the uterus as if to "sneeze" closer to the source (Tannahill 128) Though this list in not all-inclusive or exhaustive it demonstrates the ignorance and uncertainity with which Medieval society viewed sexual intercourse contraception and the surrounding medical field (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO. Engagement which meant that the man and the woman were promised to each other This was part of the deal and economic compensation was necessary if one side wanted to break the engagement Wedding where the bride was formally given to the bridegroom by her guardian usually her father This was done at a feast in the bridegroom's home "I give thee my daughter" was the formula spoken by the guardian Bedding where the couple went to bed together in the presence of witnesses This was not a pornographic show The witnesses left before any sexual action began But the fact that the couple had gone to bed together was firmly established A game for knights in training was to seduce and abduct the woman of the castle This was only a game to test the young knight's valor but its setting was real life and sometimes ended in the forceful taking of the lady followed by her rape (Duby 82) This sound s to be a form of hazing which seems so popular to the fraternities and sororities of colleges today Seemingly rape was very common in the middle ages For the most part punishments were severe if the offended could be found With the lack of medical training and procedures we have available to us today blood and bodily fluids testing would have been impossible Only with the testament of a witness would a trial be valid Bogin Meg The Women York: W.W Norton. The lessening of parental control did not signify the entrance of falling in love as the preferred determinant of marital choice Indeed Dr Samuel Johnson opined that "It is commonly a weak man who marries for love." Interestingly women often thought to be at the mercy of their emotions sometimes sneered at romance perhaps to prove that they could be just as rational as men alleged themselves to be Even Mary Astell often called the first English feminist asked "What does Marrying for Love amount to? There's no great odds between Marrying for Love of Money or for the Love or Beauty: the Man does not act according to Reason in either Case but is govern'd by irregular appetites." "Three major patterns of sexual doctrine underlie the diverse beliefs about sexual morality that have been current in Western Christendom since the patristic period One pattern centered on the reproductive function of sex and established nature and the natural as the criterion of what was licit; the second focused on the notion that sex was impure a source of shame and defilement; the third emphasized sexual relations as a source of intimacy as a symbol and expression of conjugal love Medieval writers placed greater emphasis upon the first two patters but at various times prior to the Reformation and in many segments of Christian society since then all three approaches and the consequences deduced from them have been held and taught in various combinations." The Book of Courtesy The First Book In this book you may learn Courtesy Every one needs it On reaching a Lord's gate give the Porter your weapon and ask leave to go in If the master is of low degree he will come to you; if of high the Porter will take you. Jas Townsend & Son P.O Box 415 Pierceton. for the romanticist the ideal of the wealthy bourgeoisie with their preoccupation with economics and rigid mores was an infamy If one loved it mattered little if one was already married to another Unions made in heaven had little respect for man-made conventions The upper-middle and wealthy classes watched the peccadilloes of the poets and painters of the romantic mold and were enthused by the energy they generated in their writings However they could not countenance the romanticists' lack of respect for parents the law and religion By Bernard I Murstein cessation of marital relations did not break the bond of just as the beginning of sexual relations was irrelevant to the contracting of The evident aim of patristic matrimonial theory was to separate as far as possible from its sexual component defining it as a contractual union separate and distinct from the sexual union of the married persons." Dancing Dragon 5670 West End Road #4 P.O Box 1106 Arcata. jewish-Christian Cere License Info Pre-Nuptials If you blow your nose clean your hand; wipe it with your skirt or put it through your tippet Don't pick your teeth at meals or drink with food in your mouth as you may get choked or killed by its stopping your wind Tell no tale to harm or shame your companions Don't stroke the cat or dog Don't dirty the table cloth with your knife Don't blow on your food or put your knife in your mouth or wipe your teeth or eyes with the. Identification In ancient times Bahrain was part of an empire known as Dilmun Culture of Bangladesh Identification "Bangladesh" is a combination of the Bengali words Bangla and Desh meaning the country or land where the Bangla language is spoken Culture of Barbados Identification Barbadians are people born on Barbados and people born elsewhere who have at least one Barbadian parent and maintain cultural ties to the nation Culture of Belarus Republic of Belarus Respublika Belarus; before 1991 the country was known as the Belorussian (also spelled Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic Sometimes called White Russia or alternatively White Ruthenia especially in relation to the pre-1918 history of the region "I fail to see what use woman can be to man," Augustine said "if one excludes the function of bearing children." " "Cassian and others elaborated schemes of discipline to ward off dangerous sexual impulses These plans regulated diet clothing social contacts sleeping habits posture and other aspects of daily living with the aim of eliminating physical mental or emotional stimuli that might trigger responses and sexual desires I hope some of the above may be of use to you If you want a medieval wedding I suggest that you choose such medieval elements that are compatible with your faith and that are practically feasible and try to incorporate them into whatever modern ritual your church is using Having parts of the lIn regards to the query as to information on Italian Renaissance (especially Venetian) weddings information on itself in Venice may be found. Affordable Photography Catholic Ceremony Jewish Ceremony The French Revolution signaled the end of absolute obedience to many of the customs that had regulated A new movement romanticism arose based on protest against the organization of civilization against the tyranny of Reason against middle-class respectability and against the evils of society The romanticists believed that one should disregard man-made laws and instead worship nature unspoiled pastoral life mysterious ancient forests ancient ruins from the past and distant exotic lands Sensation emotion feeling were good even if like nature they varied from moment to moment and from situation to situation (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO HOME PAGE) (E-MAIL US - Click here!) in Medieval Times Once the age for a woman to marry was attained the procedure for finding her a husband began by her parents " was by arrangement; no sensible family would allow the possession of valuable lands and property to be jeopardized by casual alliances" (Chamberlin 57) Relationships built on monetary worth rather than genuine love were not ve ry solid to begin with and often were surely awkward until each of them became used to living with the other The dowry was an exceptional part of the transaction "The dowry was the donation which is given or promised by the wife or by her s ide to the husband or his side with the purpose that it remain forever with him because of the burdens of matrimony" (Herlihy 14) If the classical dowry was more valuable in worth the more appealing the woman or offer of was to an available gentleman " most Protestants regarded celibacy as an oddity graced with no special prestige or privilege Protestant writers treated sex as a normal part of conjugal relationships a sign of love between husband and wife rather than a failing that required a procreative purpose to excuse it For Protestants was a basic Christian institution approved by Scriptures and integral to a full human life Reformers praised the beauty dignity and morality of married life as a central feature of Christian society; but at the same time they also taught that s could be terminated for good cause Since for them was no sacrament questions that troubled Roman Catholic writers when dealing with divorce and re created fewer difficulties for Protestant theologians." A word on historical English weddings Traditionally in front of the church door the groom would in front of witnesses announce his bride's dower--that portion (usually 1/3) of his holdings she would be allowed to use should he die before she did (she could also inherit land and property but this was a different thing) They would then go in for the solemnization of vows (very short) and the nuptial mass Pre-Nuptials 2nd w/children TOP. (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO HOME PAGE) " marital sex must not be "unnatural" which Gratian apparently took to mean anal copulation and perhaps oral sex as well Unnatural sex in was worse than adultery or fornication according to sources that Gratian cited His objection was not primarily that anal and oral sex were contraceptive; rather he reprobated these types of intercourse because they were an inappropriate use of the sex organs and that he believed ran counter to natural law Intercourse in a "natural fashion but with contraceptive intent Gratian classed as a very slight sin a moral blemish much like such other minuta peccata as excessive talking eating after one's hunger was sated registering annoyance at an importunate beggar or oversleeping and as a result being later for divine services." the one means of fighting off sexual temptations at which practically all authorities drew the line was castration Although one or tow extremists - Origen was the best known - had advocated and even practiced this radical method of combating sexual temptation orthodox opinion held that this solution carried a good thing too far Both the so-called Canons of the Apostles and the genuine canons of the Council of Nicaea (325) prohibited the practice." The Church always held that the essence of was consent and in that sense a priest was not necessary But for a number of reasons (one of them being that the Church was called upon from time to time to assess the validity of existing s usually in royal cases where a king wanted to dump a wife and it was very hard to do this with any semblance of validity unless there were witnesses) the Church began to require public witnesses on its behalf and to move toward the requirement that a priest to be present and the be formally acknowledged and recorded Hence what you. special Readings Rose Ceremony Unity Candles Colorful Images 1401 South Sunset Longmont Co 80501-6755 1-800-458-7999 Catalogs for the Medieval and Renaissance Wedding Faq The same request applies if you have a copy of any of these catalogs or have ordered from the companies Name Change! Involving Children Involve Family&Guests Exclusively Weddings 1301 Carolina Greensboro. "for the first time people wrote extensively about love; courtly love fine love adulterous love the love of the troubadours and they went a long way into things The troubadours for example were people who wrote about 'tremendous' 'inaccessible' love and respect for the lady For the first time the lady is elevated to the level of the man and this is the most important thing in the culture and is perhaps the most symbolic thing about the cultural effervescence of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries." - Gerard Zucherro Rosamonda Technically you don't need a priest for a handfasting--all that's required is the agreement to a wedding contract between the two individuals involved In Scotland for most of period if you agreed between the two of you that you were married you were--this also applied to England (see the issue of whether Anne Boleyn or Catherine Howard had secretly a before their s to Henry) Technically all you needed was to exchange consents in the present tense No priests no witnesses (though that would make it hard to prove) no contracts "I take you for my husband" "I take you for my wife" This constituted a ceremony Love Romance & Women In Medieval & Celtic Culture (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law of etc ) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO HOME PAGE) Like today rape was a punishable crime in the middle ages Not surprisingly the majority of rape cases registered held women as the victim of the crime Also similar to modern times was the idea that young women should be well sheltered from sexual encounter and that the offenders of these crimes against young teenage girls were most highly punishable "One father lost his life trying to save his teenage daughter from a rapist" (Hanawalt 98) Upon hearing his daughter's screams he raced into the woods where his daughter had been gathering firewood only to be shot by the offender's arrow No doubt this offender suffered serious persecution after the incident The old way in Great Britain for couples to pledge their betrothal was for them to join hands his right to her right his left to her left so from above they looked like an infinity symbol Done in front of witnesses this made them officially "married" for a year and a day following which they could renew permanently or for another year and a day This was called "handfasting" and was used extensively in the rural areas where priests and ministers didn't go all that often Sharing a cup and pledging their betrothal in front of witnesses used to accomplish the same thing (usually done in taverns) but was eventually outlawed in most of Europe mutual love generally but not invariably takes place between two individuals of equal status in society Passion between unequals typically occurs in temporary relationships (a king may have a sexual relationship with a barmaid but is unlikely to marry her) In the rare case where the relationship persists the status of one of the members changes Thus when the emperor Justinian wanted to marry the courtesan-actress Theodora he first had to create a law which offered "glorious repentance" to those who had "prostituted their persons" to the theater 2Nd w/children TOP OF PAGE HOME PAGE DFWX. "the ideas of courtly love first appeared in the lyric poetry composed by the troubadours of Southern France In Occitania many of these wandering minstrels were also Carthar Speculatively the Occitanian troubadour ideas of love and relations with women grew spontaneously out of the environment supplied by the region in the eleventh and twelfth centuries." - "Searching For A Cathar Feminism 1100-1300" "jesus said remarkably little about sexual conduct and sex was not a central issue in his moral teaching But Jesus' followers during the first four or five generations after his death were far more concerned about sexual morality than Jesus himself had been." "Despite claims to the contrary Christian sexual ethics have been neither uniform nor static." The raison d'être for was procreation Nothing was said about interpersonal compatibility or emotional satisfaction What was important was that each gender carry out its ascribed roles -- the husband as the provider the wife as the bearer of children and the homemaker Love as a precursor of was frowned upon because of its association with passion and irrationality However after it was a duty Thus in The Bachelor's Directory (1696) the husband is told "If she (the wife) loves you you cannot without ingratitude forbear to love her," and the Puritan divine Benjamin Wadsworth thundered that "The Great God commands thee to love her How vile then are those who don't love. Identification Druk-yul means "Land of the Thunder Dragon." Most Bhutanese refer to their homeland as Druk-yul the original and still official name Culture of Bolivia Identification Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar a leader in the nineteenth-century wars of independence against Spain Virtually all restrictions that now apply to sexual behavior in Western societies stem form moral convictions enshrined in medieval canonical jurisprudence." 'The history of changing concepts among Christian leaders and intellectuals about the nature of human sexuality and about the kinds and varieties of sexual practices that are consistent with Christian beliefs suggests that dogmatic ascertains about the unity consistency and invariably of Christian sexual morality must be treated with skepticism "Christian sexual morality" has encompassed a wide range of inconsistent views." After this benediction a mass (communion) followed The ritual kissing of the bride belongs here at the moment of the kiss of peace The priest kissed the bridegroom who kissed the bride and then the bride passed the kiss on to the women while an assistant cleric brought it from the priest to the male side of the church (of course the men were on the south side and the women on the north side in the nave) Interestingly enough the formula "I now pronounce you man and wife" was not used everywhere It occurs in late period German and French rituals but there is evidence that in older times the priest left the confirmation of the to God: "May the God of Abraham Isac and Jacob. A document written by Andreas Capellanus in 1184 states "If you should by some chance fall in love with a peasant woman be careful to puff her up with lots of praise and then when you find a convenient place do not hesitate to take what you seek and embrace her by force." Contrary to this quote peasants were not the only women being raped during the early middle ages Noble women and ladies of the castle were often taken advantage of in the passages of the castle It was also not uncommon for a woman to be raped in her own bed while her husband was out attending to family business (Bogin 25) Family and friends played a major role in arranging s especially if land and other wealth accompanied the union The parents and siblings in the families had a concern in the and the lord also wished to keep some accounting of village marrieages In cases where the was part of the family's economic and social strategy careful planning by the whole unit was needed for a good could bring considerable economic benefits The prospective bride and groom also had an economic stake in a contract because it would determine not only who their life partner would be but also how well they could expect to live To marry for love without land or chattels could assure nothing but a life of penury The ceremony at the church door began with the mutual consent of the man and the woman The priest asked the man if he would take the woman for his wife The man replied "Yes" and then turned to the woman and said: "I take thee N now to be my wife in the name of the Lord" The same was then repeated for. "Practical considerations mainly economic supported the drive for an unmarried clergy Married clergy the reformers declared were expensive to maintain - married priests after all had to provide food clothes and housing for those bawling babies and slatternly wives and the church's resources were thereby frittered away not in the service of God but in catering to the whims of the wives and children of married clerics Even worse married priests bishops and others would be tempted to treat their ecclesiastical offices as family property and to convert the sacred dignity into the family heritage This last was close to the mark Sacerdotal dynasties were common almost the norm in some regions of eleventh-century Europe and had been commonplace for centuries." Museum Replicas Ltd 2143 Gees Mill road Box 840 Conyers. The first part of the ceremony took place outside the church door At cathedrals with several entrances there was usually a designated "bridal door" for this The actions done there corresponded to the functions of the old germanic ceremony Even though it was now led by a priest it was essentially a secular act by which the union of the families was confirmed When people had arrived at the church door the men were placed on the right side and the women on the left If the bride was a virgin her hands were bare If she was a widow she wore gloves In some countries the most important parts were conducted in the vernacular in others everything was in Latin In the latter case the priest would read the words that the bride and bridegroom were supposed to repeat Campbells RD 1 Box 1444 Herndon. - Joseph Campbell Creative Mythology "Another phenomenon that though apparently chiefly literary also probably comprised an initiatory organization is the Fedeli d'Amore Representatives of the movement are documented in the thirteenth century in Provence and Italy as well as in France and Belgium The Fedeli d'Amore constituted a secret and spiritual militia devoted to the cult of the 'One Woman' and to initiation into the mystery of 'Love' They all used a 'hidden language' (parlar cruz) so that their doctrine should not be accessible to 'la gente grosa' to use the expression of one of the most famous Fedeli Francesco da Barberino (1264-1384)." (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO. HOME PAGE DFWX SITE MAP "Few early patristic writers bothered to account for the dislike and revulsion that characterized their treatment of sex They plainly felt that no explanation was required that sex was so filthy and degrading that the reason for condemnation of it was self-evident." "s of the clergy posed special problems for Christian authorities Although a few early writers expressed a preference that clerics not marry at all nearly every third-century Christian clergyman whose marital status is known seems to have been married The first effort to prohibit clerical appeared in the canons of Elvira in the early fourth century." Ministers & Judges Alternative Vows Special Readings Love may be the sine qua non for in our society but it hasn't always played that role throughout history A professor of psychology probes the past to show why the increased status of women made possible an era of marrying for love But is it the ephemeral nature of romantic love itself that now dooms many s to failure? (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. handfastings were not weddings nor were they "pagan"--they were a result of the fact that the Christian priests of the day had to act as "circuit riders" and one couldn't always have a priest handy to do a whenever Thus you had a "handfasting" and the matter was then solemnized/rendered official when the priest made it 'round what is the story behind the wedding rhyme: "Something old something new Something borrowed something blue And a lucky sixpence for your shoe." It's from the late 19th century authorship unknown Another strange incident shows a woman who had been raped in the woods years earlier worrying about the effects on the night before her wedding As the story turns out the man who had raped her turned out to be her soon to be husband and the uniting of the couple went on without a hitch (Hanawalt 196) Most s today would probably not have been carried through if the same case had. roman Catholic and Protestant beliefs differed sharply on questions about the sacramentally of clerical celibacy divorce and re and ultimately about the aims and purposes of human sexuality itself The Catholic reaction both in its reform mode and in its Counter-Reformation mode tended to sharpen rather than blunt the difference between the. (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law of etc ) (TOP OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO HOME PAGE) in the Middle Ages by Laura Reynolds special Readings Rose Ceremony Unity Candles Spanish Ceremony Affordable Photography Catholic Ceremony the notion of parental rule supplanting individual choice may seem quaint and even ridiculous today but viewing the modern institution of against a backdrop of marital choice through the centuries may shed some light on today's high divorce rate If romantic love is a luxury that earlier generations could scarcely afford to link with it also may be the undoing of many contemporary unions In addition to being unpredictable in its duration romantic love sets up high expectations that some s cannot fulfill Affordable Photography Catholic Ceremony Jewish Ceremony Copyright ©: All materials on this site are copyrighted by DFWX and may not be reproduced without express permission 1998 What's Love GOT TO DO WITH IT? The Changing Role of Love in Marital Choice across the Centuries Rose Ceremony Unity Candles Name Change! "The failure of medieval efforts to eradicate fornication concubinage premarital cohabitation adultery and sodomy through legal prescriptions even where those prescriptions were backed by serious enforcement efforts is rather sobering It suggests that simply enacting theological principles into law is not likely to be a rewarding exercise." What were weddings like during the Middle Ages? So long as the couple made the vows before a witness the was valid--no priest had to be present (although this is increasingly not the case after the 13th century) In D-FW Greater Metroplex & Looking Affordable Wedding Photography? What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't have to write much Just "read it." Identification The word "Afghan" historically has been used to designate the members of an ethnic group also called the Pashtuns but Afghanistan is multicultural and multiethnic Culture of Albania The international terms "Albania" and "Albanian" are based on the root *alb- *arb- which also is the source of the word Arberesh which is used to describe the Italo-Albanians of southern Italy That root also appears as *lab- in Labëria referring to the southern Albanian region from Vlorë southward to the Greek border and *rab- in early Slavic as in raban rabanski ("Albanian") Culture of Algeria In Arabic the country is known as Al-Jaza'ir which is short for Al-Jumhuriyal Al-Jaza'iriyah ad-dimuqratiyah ash-sha'biyah. The chaperone system of supervised interaction between the sexes was already decaying when a number of inventions hastened its demise One of these was the introduction of the safety bicycle around 1885 Now a couple could pedal away from prying eyes for secluded trysts The invention of the telephone helped to prepare for these rendezvous and the advent of the mass-produced car a generation later furthered privacy to such an extent that its nickname was "the bedroom on wheels." At last love in America became a prior condition for rather than a sequel to the wedding Alice Preston noted in the Ladies Home Journal in 1905 "No high-minded girl and no girl of truly refined feeling ever admits the advisability of without love." The following is a list of catalogs which have been suggested for inclusion in the Medieval and Renaissance Wedding Faq as sources of clothing and/or items with medieval flavor For medieval clothing patterns and items: Raiments P.O Box 93095 Pasadena. The wedding guests would follow the couple back to their room and try to grab the bride's garter for good luck Brides starting tossing their garter to the crowd as a means of self preservation! As society changed it became inappropriate to throw part of your underwear and the bouquet was substituted Sometime this century the garter toss was added back in as a means of equalizing the tradition Women could catch the bouquet and men could catch the garter Why the groom can't throw part of his own costume is beyond me "dowry represented the married woman's claim to financial security but that security might be jeopardized by her own actions or those of her husband The married woman who committed adultery stood to lose her dowry and the beneficiary in that case was her husband who received part or all of it as compensation for his humiliation." "The sixteenth century Reformation was not entirely centered on abstract issues of theology such as justification by faith or on ecclesiological problems such as the plenitude of papal power or the priesthood of all believers Problems involving sexual conduct were also at issue in the struggles between Protestant and Catholic I found my information from the following fascinating text Furnivall Frederick James ed Early English Meals and Manners: John Russell's Boke of Nurture Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge The Boke of Curtasye R Weste's Booke of Demeanor Seager's Schoole of Verture The Babees Book Aristotle's A B C Vrbanitatis Stans Puer ad Mensam The Lytylee Childrenes Lytil Boke for to serbe a Lord Old Symon The Birched School-Boy &c &c with some Forewords on Education in Early England Detroit: Singing. "Patristic writers assumed as Roman law did that consent made They rejected the notion that consummation was an essential part of It made no difference whether a couple ever went to bed together; so long as they consented to marry one another that was what counted If consummation was not essential it might follow that sexual impotence constituted no reason for holding a invalid and Augustine at any rate seems to have subscribed to. Tradition plays a tremendous role in setting ceremony; and in the middle ages there is every evidence that it did so more since religious conformity (denial of which is the basis for a huge percentage of modern variations) was the overwhelming rule Finally the SCA normally assumes that its members are upper class In the High Middle Ages there are upper class Jews and Muslims as well as Christians in parts of Europe at various times One might on rare occasion even find someone who professed himself openly to be atheist But by that point there are _no_ openly admitted upper class pagans in Europe "Long before the time of Jesus philosophers and rulers had learned to be wary of sex this fiery passion must be controlled lest it disrupt settled households and property arrangements and undermine the social harmony of communities." asked to judge a case involving a woman who thought she had gotten rid of an unwanted suitor by marrying the man she loved Marie Countess of Champagne ruled in favor of the jilted suitor stating among numerous reasons that "love cannot exert its powers between two people who are married to each other For lovers give each other everything freely but married people are in duty bound to give in to each other's desires." "Augustine and his contemporaries among the Fathers considered sex a grave moral danger in part because they believed that sexual feelings and urges particularly the reactions of the genital organs were not fully under the control of the human will." According to Augustine "Prior to the Fall sexual organs had been under conscious control; but just as our first parents rebelled against God so after the Fall our genitals rebelled against our will Humans then became incapable of controlling either their sexual desires or the physical reactions of their gonads." An anotated bibliography of pre-1650 costume sources (including books and periodicals) is available from: Puffs and Slashes c/o L R Fox P O Box 443 Bloomington IN 47402-0443 $ per copy Christian Ceremonies An early explorer Louis de Bougainville called the Samoan islands the Navigator's Islands and some early government reports may refer to American Samoa as Eastern Samoa Culture of Andorra Identification The first reference to Andorra appears in the writings of the Greek historian Polybius (c Culture of Angola Identification The word "Angola" derives from the title used by the rulers of the Ndongo state Culture of Anguilla Location and Geography Anguilla is the most northern of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea Culture of Antigua And Barbuda Identification The culture of Antigua and Barbuda (local creole pronunciation Antiga and Barbueda) is a classic example of a creole culture In early Saxon days and through the 18th century it was the poorer bride who came to her wedding dressed in a plain white robe This was in the nature of a public statement that she brought nothing with her to her and that therefore her husband was not responsible for her debts Colors used for wedding dresses reflected the values that were ascribed to certain colors Blue was used to show constancy Green was an indicator of youth A blue ribbon on the shoulder symbolized purity fidelity and love Two colors not used much in medieval wedding gowns were yellow and gold the first because it symbolized jeolousy and the second because it symbolized avarice "The third model of sexuality views marital sex as a source of intimacy and affection as both a symbol and a source of conjugal love Subscribers to this school of thought regard sexual pleasure more positively than do adherents of the other two models." "Writers at different periods during the Middle Ages adopted elements of each of these models of human sexuality as we have seen in varying combinations and with varying degrees of enthusiasm "Since the Reformation Protestant Christians have often emphasized the third model of sexuality although some Protestant authorities (notably the Puritans) stressed the impurity view." Family and friends could force girls into sexual initiation if they wished Even priests could not be trusted with young females Prostitutes were constantly on the prowl for girls to sell to their customers Cases of forced prostitution of naieve young teenage girls run far and wide There appear to be no records of forcd sexual encounters on males for homosexuality does not appear in the records (Hanawalt 123) Reference: Hanawalt Barbara A Growing Up in Medieval London New York: Oxford University 1993 (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. If you sit by a good man don't put your knee under his thigh Don't hand your cup to any one with your back towards him Don't lean on your elbow or dip your thumb into your drink or your food into the salt cellar: Thant is a vice Don't spit in the basin you wash in or loosely(?) before a man. Involving Children Involve Family&Guests Spanish Ceremony "He ["St." Jerome] also furnished generations of misogynist writers with a battery of elegant vituperation and ferocious mockery directed against the foibles and follies of women Patristic discussions of the place of sex in the Christian life are shot through with a fundamental ambivalence about the place of women in the scheme of salvation Augustine agreed clearly and emphatically with other patristic writers in requiring that men observe the same norms of sexual conduct as women At the same time however Augustine like other patristic authors considered women frankly inferior to men both physically and morally The woman would the say "I (her name) take thee (his name) to my wedded husband to have and to hold from this day forward for better or worse for richeror poorer in sickness and in health to be bonny and buxom at bed and at board,to love and to cherish till death us depart according to God's holy ordinance; thereunto I plight thee my troth." Very interesting I thought Also many times only the woman wore a ring unless it was a "double-ring" ceremony (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. The Noble Collection P.O Box 831 Merrifield VA 22116 Hedgehog Handiworks 8406 Flight Avenue Los Angeles. When someone says the word today we think about two people who are in love and who want to spend the rest of their lives with each other is a serious commitment one that isn't taken lightly for most people One wouldn't likely marry a stranger they just met for instance In the Medieval Times however was quite different Women didn't have a choice as to who they would marry Most of the time they didn't even know the man before they were married was different in other ways back then too There were many reasons a could not take place and strict rules for whether or not a divorce was allowed Despite the differences in various aspects of the ceremony has stayed rather similar over the years We also carry on some of the same traditions in today's society Christian Ceremonies Non Religious Cere Handfasting refers to the old practice of trial s for a year and a day supposedly prevalent in Scotland Wales and Ireland I've never actually run across other references to this other than Sir Walter Scott (19th cent.) "When we are handfasted as we term it we are man and wife for a year and a day; that space gone by each may choose another mate or at their pleasure may call the priest to marry them for life; and this we call handfasting." Put your trencher before you and don't eat or drink till your Mess is brought from the kitchen lest you be thought starved or a glutton Have your nails clean Don't bite your bread but break it Don't quarrel at table or make grimaces Don't cram your cheeks out with food like an ape for if any one should speak to you you can't answer but must wait Don't eat on both sides of. The first story I found interesting in this book is called The Boke of Curtasye It seems to written by a man for men Some of the material is common sense and still applies today but other of it applies only to the time in which it was written They even had the courtesy of "don't double dip" in the Middle Ages! Although it is stated as "don't put into the dish bread that you have once bitten." It was circulated around 1430-40 I have copied its first. Rose Ceremony Unity Candles Name Change! Ministers & Judges Alternative Vows Special Readings Anthropologists consider rituals surrounding sexual initiation a major indicator of crossing into adolescence Medieval moralists believed that lust dominated the adolescent experience They felt the need to protect both sexes from such an urge so they gave much advise on how to avoid such tempting situations There were cautions to females not to speak to men in the s for they may "tempt one's heart." The moralists praised chastity by both sexes until The age in which men entered adult-hood became increasingly delayed in the later Middle Ages so they were likely to find "sexual outlet" with prostitutes in spite of the moralists cautions (Hanawalt 120-121) once the couple was married the woman's role was very important She was often left in charge of the household while her husband went away on trips "The slightly better education which women were receiving enabled them to pla y a more active part in society and the wife stepped out of the background she had long occupied" (Chamberlin 57) Through women were gaining a sense of power They had more say in family affairs then they ever did Husbands put their trust in these women they referred to as their wives to manage and control a majority of family affairs " had always been a crucial stage in a woman's life for at a girl became a domina the 'lady' of a house part of whose internal authority was placed into her hands" (Duby 12) In the middle ages s were done by arrangement Women were not allowed to choose who they wanted to marry However sometimes men were able to choose their bride was not based on love Husbands and wives were generally strangers until they first met If love was involved at all it came after the couple had been married Even if love did not develop through the couple generally developed a friendship of some sort The arrangement of was done by the children's parents In the Middle Ages children were married at a young age Girls were as young as 12 when they married and boys as young as 17 The arrangement of the was based on monetary worth The family of the girl who was to be married gives a dowry,or donation to the boy she is to marry The dowry goes with her at the time of the and stays with the boy forever (Renolds) The church ceremony in the middle ages took place outside the church door before entering the church for a nuptial mass During the ceremony in front of the church doors the man stood on the right side and the woman stood on the left side facing the door of the church "The reason being that she was formed out of a rib in the left side of Adam (Amt )." The priest begins by asking if anyone knows of any reason the couple should not be married He also asks this of the man and woman so they may confess any reasons for prohibiting their (Amt ) Harriet's ETc Millwood Crossing 381 Millwood Avenue Winchester. "The marital debt was one area in which Gratian not only conceded but absolutely insisted that men and women enjoyed equal rights before the law The wife had every bit as much right to demand sexual dues from her husband as he did from her This parity in respect to the conjugal debt was Gratian's most emphatic venture in the direction of equality between the sexes." "Several decretists noted the irony and apparent inequity of allowing men who had kept concubines to be ordained while denying orders to those who had contracted two legitimate and perfectly. is a bond between two people Whether the two people enter into this institution because they are in love or because of other reasons such as in medieval times it remains just as much as a challenge Both individuals carry an enormous amount of responsibility in a However for all the bad times there are good times that can also be recalled These joyous times are what s uccessful relationships thrive off of Although s in the Middle Ages may have many contrasts with the s of today the concept is basically the same The only major difference is that today we are more advanced in our techniques regarding s (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO. House Morning Star 11246 S Post Oak Rd #217 Houston. "this custom of handfasting actually prevailed in the upland days It arose partly from the want of priests While the convents subsisted monks were detached on regular circuits through the wilder districts to marry those who had lived in this species of connexion." -- Andrew Lang,The Monastery (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law of etc ) but while Augustine and his contemporaries cautioned against intercourse for pleasure they also reminded their married hearers that they were obliged to give their spouses sex on demand The marital debt was a right that either party could claim the partner from whom it was demanded must accede to the spouse's request and doing so was no sin The other partner might sin in asking payment of the sexual debt for wrongful reasons or at inappropriate times but the spouse who complied did not share the guilt If a couple agreed by mutual consent to cease having sexual relations and one of them later had a change of mind however the other party had no obligation to honor a demand for the resumption of marital intercourse A mutual decision to forego sexual relations canceled the marital debt and neither party could thenceforth rescind that decision Sterling Silks/Sterling Cloth Company 701 Cleveland Avenue Southwest Canton. After meals wash your face and clean your teeth chat and walk soberly Don't sit up late Before bed rub your body gently Undress by a fire in Winter and warm your garments well Put off your cares with your clothes and take them up again in the morning (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. "ordinary people who chose not to devote their lives to ascetic observances were often advised that their best defense against the ever present urge to copulate was to marry early For this reason St John Chrysostom warned parents to see to it that their children married soon after they reached the age of puberty All sexual relations outside of amounted to fornication." When intercourse was forbidden: When the United States was a largely agricultural society and education was minimal and often secondary to work on the farm opportunities for interaction between boys and girls were limited for much of the year By the close of the nineteenth century however mass education was instituted and it was possible for both boys and girls to continue education to high school and beyond These youths had the opportunity to get to know each other because unlike the situation in many European countries coeducation was fairly prevalent Chivalry Sports PO Box 18904 Tucson AZ 85731-8904 Inquires (602) 722-1255 Orders 1-800-730-KING What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't have to write much Just "read it." Christian Ceremonies What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't_have to write much Just "read it." Involving Children Involve Family&Guests Spanish Ceremony A private was a where the bridal couple gave each other the sacrament of without it occuring in a church The Church deemed the valid because it was the couple who should be bestowing the sacrament to each other Private s caused many problems for the Church and the courts Often one of the couple abandoned the and then tried to remarry In some cases the "remarried" spouse has had children before the abandoned spouse could find their spouse and tell of their The Church would then deem the second void and any children from that were then labeled bastards The secular government then urged the Church to declare such s invalid because of the controversy they caused The Church eventually did declare private s invalid but they did not die out until much later in the Middle Ages (Shahar 83+) non Religious Cere Ministers & Judges Alternative Vows HOME PAGE DFWX. Renaissance Herald (was Renaissance Shopper) P.O Box 422 Riverside CA 92502 Amazon Vinegar & Pickling Works 2218 East 11th Davenport. "Married couples among the Roman elite lived in a social system in which the family as modern societies think of it did not exist The Roman familia meant a household not a family in the modern sense and households came in a great variety of sizes and shapes Among the wealthy and powerful the household often numbered hundreds of persons and things: children servants slaves livestock and other property were all part of the familia although his wife and children were members of it and like the servants and slaves oxen and geese and the rest of the familia they belonged to the paterfamilia Among the poor however households were apparently small since they included no slaves or servants and little property The familia of the humble often consisted simply of a woman and her children Again the male head of household was not part of his own familia." [Inquiry - margin] John Page and Agnes his wife appear through their attorney Peter Godsone against John Baker and Matilda his wife in a plea of broken covenant alleging that the aforesaid John Baker sold his wife Matilda to Agnes Page for one pig (3 shillings) etc Later John Baker came and sought to have his wife again and he gave (offered?) 2 shillings which he did not pay And he say he did not make any covenant with him and he seeks an inquiry [m 3d Novem] [Amercement 1 penny - margin] Because the aforesaid John Baker failed against John Page by inquest it is therefore held that the aforesaid John Baker be in mercy and that the aforesaid John Page recover 2 shillings and his losses ("dampna") which are taxed at 2 d etc.[m 3d Feg 5 1331] [Lewisham Kent All references from P.R.O SC2/181/58 courtesy of John Beckerman.] 2Nd w/children TOP OF PAGE HOME PAGE DFWX. non Religious Cere Ministers & Judges Alternative Vows After the was a wedding notice was posted on the door of the church The notice was put up to ensure that there were no grounds for prohibiting the The notice stated who was to be married and if anyone knew any reasons the two could not marry they were to come forward with the reason If the reason were a valid one the wedding would be prohibited (Rice) "aussie" is a colloquialism that was used during World War I to refer to Australian-born people of British or Irish ancestry Initially used to describe a happy-go-lucky character capable of battling through hard times the term was employed after World War II to distinguish those born domestically from "new" immigrants from western and southern Europe Culture of Austria Identification The origins of present-day Austria can be traced back to prehistoric times Culture of Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Turkish Azeri Turkish The country name also is written Azerbaidzhan Azerbaydzhan Adharbadjan and Azarbaydjan in older sources as a transliteration from Russian Culture of Bahama Islands Identification The name Bahamas derives from the Spanish baja ("shallow") and mar ("sea") Pre-Nuptials 2nd w/children TOP. Contracts involved detailed planning Not all young people however had s for them Some were from poor families who had nothing to negotiate and hence would either not marry or marry whom they pleased It was even possible that in times of land shortage family interference in was less common because they had nothing to bargain with was easy to contract but yet even some people remained celibate and unmarried their entire lives Amt Emilie Women's Lives In Medieval Europe Routledge Chapman and Hall Inc.: New York 1993 The paradox is more apparent than real because choice and freedom to divorce are synonymous People today have the opportunity to leave unhappy s choices that formerly were not legal or economically feasible Also with increasingly entered into only for emotional satisfactions rather than for economic sexual or status reasons the expectations for have risen enormously and the willingness to tolerate unsatisfactory s has dropped proportionately Love may be the new sine qua non for but it has proved to be somewhat ephemeral in the majority of s (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law. "Classical Roman law as we have seen based the existence of on affectio maritalis Where marital affection existed between a couple they were married; when marital affection ceased the ended In the post-classical period this concept of underwent a slight but important change in postclassical law continued to be contracted by consent which implied martial affection; but once created the continued until the relationship ended by death or divorce Classical Roman accordingly required continuing consent of the parties while postclassical needed only initial consent." Christian Ceremonies Non Religious Cere From the Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir: The betrothal was the big thing with the actual nuptials merely a followup This said I would venture to guess that during the 12th century the average couple would have any ceremony that felt right to them and their families (usually the declaration of dower or a reading of the betrothal or nuptial agrement) even to the almost-legendary jumping over a broomstick followed by a mass and of course by. Afterwards in the evening there was the bedding The Church adopted this pagan custom and converted it from a juridical act into a blessing of the matrimonial bed Remember also that medieval wedding gowns were usually not white as far as. the answer lay in a new alloy forged of the driving force of the romantic's sensual passion and tempered by the conservative family sentiment of the bourgeoisie The florid phrases energetic manner styled unconventionality and languid poses of the romantic were combined in a synthetic manner with bourgeois morality Men saw their "bestial" needs elevated not merely through their goal of propagation but because they had as their object the "angel in the house," as the wife came to be euphemistically called in a book-long poem of the same name by Coventry Patmore Passion was purified when expressed within the confines of matrimony and that only when and if its delightfully deified object shyly nodded assent Lust was transformed into treacly sentimentality I found a Middle Ages wedding ceremony that included some interesting variations in the vows for the man and those for the woman The differences are in italics The man would say "I (his name) take thee (her name) to my wedded wife to have and to hold from this day forward for better or worse for richer or poorer for fairer or fouler,in sickness and in health to love and to cherish till death us depart according to God's holy ordinance; and thereunto I plight thee. The chief basis of status among the ancients probably was physical strength and skill Later as civilization progressed it was land Although then as now most societies primarily were run by men the biblical Hebrews seem to have elevated women to a higher status than either the ancient Greeks or Romans did possibly because in the Hebrews' originally nomadic society each sex played an active functional role What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't_have to write much Just "read it." The twelfth century marked the emergence of the phenomenon we now call "courtly love," a code of behavior to guide those aspiring to be lovers Its chief tenets were the ennobling power of love the conception of love as a burning rarely extinguished passion the elevation of the beloved woman to a position superior to that of the supplicant (the man) analogous to the relationship between lord and vassal the idea of fidelity between lovers as long as they were still in love and the impossibility of love between wife and husband At the Hall-door take off your hood and gloves If the first meal is beginning greet the Steward bow to the Gentlemen on each side of the hall both right and left; notice the yeomen than stand before the screen till the Marshal or Usher leads you to the table Be sedate and courteous if you are set with the gentleman Cut your loaf in two the top from the bottom; cut the top crust in 4 and the bottom. 1 Alexander Wymer was attached to answer Vincent Buncheswell on a plea of wrong (trespass) in which (Vincent) says that A.W on the Friday after St Gregory the Pope's day in the 26th year of king Edward  in the vill of "Estrudham" came and brought with him unknown men and others speaking ill with the friends [including kinsmen] and neighbors of the said V and spread scandal about him with shocking ("enormis") words and caused him to lose 20 m value concerning Mary of Hecham whom he was supposed to marry because the said Alexander told Mary that the said Vincent did not sow or plough his land in good time and was not a good farmer ("cultor") Because of this he lost Mary's love and to the said Vincent's serious loss 40/- He seeks a [jury] inquiry into the matter [Gressenhall Manor Court July 8 1298 MEDIEVAL STUDIES xlix (1987). Inside a "bridal mass" was celebrated It consisted of prayers hymns bible reading antiphonals and culminated in the solemn bridal benediction The couple kneeled at the altar and a fine piece of cloth (called a "paell" in Swedish) was held over them by four unmarried people The blessing of the bride included many words from the Old Testament particularly the apocryphic book of Tobias It included wishes that she should be good to her husband like Rachel wise like Rebecca and faithful like Sarah Let her be fertile chaste and innocent and let them both live to see their offspring to the third and fourth generation The bridal benediction is very old - the first known example is from the 5th century christian authorities warned married couples that they should have sex only for proper reasons Augustine pointed to the Old Testament prophets as examples for married persons of his own generation The prophets he claimed made love to their wives rationally and solely for procreative purposes Since marital sex is a favor not a right couples should avoid making love merely for enjoyment or because they felt like it Only propagation of the species Augustine warned entitled them to make use of the marital privileges blamelessly What this would imply is that William valued the life of a human being at forty-six silver marks When the Magna Carta was written in 1215 there is no mention of assault or homicide in the first fifty-six regulations(The Magna Carta 1215World Wide Web 1996) If the life of a man was so cheap what was the punishment for attacking women? The joyous love songs of the troubadours were often heard during Cathars worship but that one may have influenced the other is only a matter of speculation "The name troubadour itself (Provencal trobador) has been traced with reasonable assurance from the Arabic root TRB (Ta-Ra B = 'music song') plus -ador the usual Spanish agential suffix (as for instance in conquist-ador); so that Ta Ra B-ador would have meant originally simply 'song- or mustic-maker' - Joseph Campbell Creative Mythology Jewish Ceremony Jewish-Christian Cere License Info.
Do the garter and bouquet tosses really date back to medieval times? The garter toss is one of the oldest surviving wedding traditions Back in medieval times it was customary for friends relatives guests to accompany the bridal couple to the bed As time went on this became rowdier and rowdier to the point that some guests were all too eager to help the bride out of her wedding clothes To forestall such impropriety the garters were quickly removed and thrown to the mob as a distraction As time went on it has evolved into the tradition we. (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law of etc ) (TOP OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO. "the effects of this love were not purely emotional and physical; it improved a man in every way By developing the idea that a noble could not be a perfect knight unless he loved a woman the Cathar troubadours laid the foundation of courtly chivalry Women were bound to enjoy a more elevated position in society Although she could not fight herself she could make a man a better warrior The women of Occitania were accorded a great deal more respect than was common and in this way did there exist an ideological courtly and chivalric kind of feminism." - "Searching For A Cathar Feminism 1100-1300" Apparently love and did not "go together like a horse and carriage" I was interested in how law and the church got involved and came across these quotes: "The attitude of women towards love seems to have been shared by both the upper and lower classes The fourteenth century peasant women of the southern French village of Montaillon whose attitudes were minutely ananlysed by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie never speak of love in connection with their feeling towards their husbands They seem to have regarded love as something wich existed outside Andrew the Chaplain in his treatise The Art of Courtly Love which dates from 1180 writes of the rules of love as applied to the middle and upper classes: "While the medieval church's and sex policies may have helped to increase ecclesiastical wealth it does not necessarily follow that the system was designed in order to achieve that goal although some Protestant reformers suspected that it had been We are more likely dealing with an unintended result of the Church's urge to protect the sanctity of sex rather than with policy consciously created to enrich the ecclesiastical establishment The leaders of the medieval church although occasionally sensitive to the problems and moral dilemmas of their flocks were often indifferent to the social implications that their policies created Nowhere was their indifference more marked than in matters concerning reproduction and family life In tracing the role of love in marital choice one inescapable observation is the close relationship between the increasing status of women and the increasing role of love in the choice of marital partner But if love has finally triumphed why aren't people happier? Why is the divorce rate. Is an institution that requires love trust devotion and cooperation It is a partnership that takes an enormous amount of hard work in order for it to be successful The reward of having a successful is knowing that your partner loves you with all his/her heart This individual is someon e you can depend on in a time of need or someone you can refer to as your best friend The decision of choosing the person you will spend the rest of your life with may be the most important one you will ever make However imagine not being able to ma ke this decision for yourself The Queens Thimble 515 S Evergreen Dr Mira. historians argue over whether courtly love was a minor art form or a precursor of romanticism My belief is that it was a milestone in the change of attitude toward women albeit only noble women (When the cleric Andreas Cappellanus wrote his definitive treatise The Art of Courtly Love (1184-1186) he counsels no courtly behavior should a knight espy a peasant woman in the fields Rather he should have no qualms about raping her.) For Love or Money By the seventeenth century parental control was slowly but steadily waning in the Western world Child betrothals a favorite means of controlling had been abolished and the minimum age required for was steadily raised "The model of sexuality that lays primary emphasis on the impurity of sex also remains vigorous." page "Advocates of the pollution model of sex attach only secondary importance to procreation; hence they tend not to emphasize "nature" as a criterion of sexual morality nor are they greatly concerned about contraception Unlike procreationists pollutionists strongly favor limiting marital relations by restricting the times seasons places and circumstances in which sex is allowed." Name Change! Involving Children Involve Family&Guests
"The twelfth-century has been called the century of love because of the celebration of love in the poetry of the period." 'we declare and hold as firmly established that love cannot exert its powers between two people who are married to each other For lover's give each other everything freely under no compulsion of necessity but married people are in duty bound to give in to each other's desires and deny themselves to each other in nothing.' (pg 36) But Christine de Pisan whom we will read later seemed to have made out differntly She was fifteen and he was twentyfour when they were married After her husband died Christine de Pisan described their : "He did not demand sex on the first night wanting to let her get used to his presence Only on the next day did he kiss her lingeringly and promise that God had created him only to be good to her During their love and affection grew between them." (pg 35) "Europe in 1198 was spotted with festering patches of heresy In the manufacturing towns of northern Italy and southern France the unordained and untrained followers of Peter Waldo were preaching and teaching an alarming brand of Christianity that denied the special authority of the clergy and cast doubt on the spiritual value of the sacraments Elsewhere Cathar heretics attacked the benevolence of the Creator by proclaiming that the material world was intrinsically evil; they maintained that only the spiritual realm on which they seemed to feel they had a monopoly had been created by an all-good deity." Speaking of sexual offenses in the 14th and 15th centuries Many of the things that took place during the time of a wedding have become traditions and are currently practiced today The ceremony for example contains much of the same wording as was used in the middle ages Today the man and the woman stand on the same sides of the altar as they did in the middle ages The wedding ceremony of today also includes a ring exchange and the ring is put on the fourth finger the same finger it was placed on during the middle ages Even nuns marrying the church wore a ring on their fourth finger In the middle ages a couple and their families would have a large feast after the wedding this is still carried on in today's society (Rice) Usually the procedure went like this: the parties involved (or rather their parents/guardians) a contract in which the various goods/monies/services each party would provide to the were spelled out Bans were posted so that anyone claiming a prior contract could come forward If none introduced a prior claim then the couple declared themselves married before witnesses--usually though not necessarily in front of a priest Usually the parents the contract Under Pope Alexander III's reforms: "Sexual intercourse created a bond that precluded subsequent between either party and members to the other party's immediate family Further once married persons had consummated their union Alexander was prepared to force them to continue sexual relations so long as either party desired them Even if one party contracted leprosy the sexual obligation remained in force The pope further held that couples who had exchanged consent before reaching the minimum age for were bound by their agreement if they had sexual intercourse; consummation thus outweighed the impediment of minority Likewise a conditional became binding if the parties had intercourse whether or not the stipulated conditions had been fulfilled - again sexual relations healed a defect in marital consent." In D-FW Greater Metroplex & Looking Affordable Wedding Photography? What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't have to write much Just "read it." The blacksmith is actually an *English* tradition -- coming from the English couples running away to Scotland to get married (because until about 1940 all you had to do was consent to in words of the present tense to get married in Scotland) and stopping at Gretna Green (one of the most southerly border villages) and snagging the blacksmith as a witness *Scottish* couples didn't go to gretna green and its famous blacksmith because they could get married anywhere they wanted to Of course this was an irregular form of -- perfectly legal and binding but the authorities still did their best to make you solemnize it properly afterwords (ie do the banns and church thing even though you were already married) What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't_have to write much Just "read it." ANCIENT NORSE SOCIETY The juridical procedure in Norse society was complicated but three ceremonial actions seem to have been necessary to make the complete: The period Scottish was prefaced by the making of a contract On the day of the the couple and witnesses appear before a priest declare that there is no hinderance to their getting married and say "I name take you name as my husband/wife in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost" Incorporate a blacksmith with anvil and hammer as well as. While rape stealing heiresses and secret mariages were outlawed by 1797 (A.G.L Shaw Convicts and the Colonies Faber and Faber London: 1966) medievel customs encouraged men to beat their wives regularly The thirteenth century code in France Customs of Beavais advised that " men may be excused for the injuries they inflict on their wives nor should the law intervene Provided that he neither kills nor maims her it is legal for a man to beat his wife " (Frances and Joseph Gies Women in the Middle Ages Harper Perennial 1978) A contemporary Spanish law allowed men to kill their fiancees or wives if he suspected her of adultery The man's honor and integrity had been tarnished and he was also able to murder the unfortunate lover without facing criminal charges An English law established a century later allowed a man to "correct" his wife in whatever manner was suitable "the popular belief that simple fornication between unmarried persons was neither a sin nor a crime persisted although this had been classified formally as heresy since 1287." "Several authorities maintained that when a woman committed adultery her husband was at fault and should be punished as much or more than she was but I have yet to see a case in which that. Females who entered service were likely to experience unwanted sexual initiation by their masters or by being sold by their mistresss Only females who married early and were of the better classes could expect to find sexual initiation only in --but even that was no guarentee There are records of stories of voluntary and forced sexual initiation of young women in London In one account a young women named Elizabeth Mappulton had been forced into sexual relations with a man for a year She complained to her parents who wanted to protect her but could not keep her in their home because they needed the benefit from her labor He would not marry her so during her parents petition to the Chancellor they refered to her as a "maiden" This was an unmarried women without her chastity Sexual initiation did not change her status to adult-hood for only could do that (Hanawalt 122) A History of Private Georges Duby London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University 1988 Hanawalt Barbara The Ties That York: Oxford University. And be careful - no fondling no lewd kisses no oral sex no strange positions only once try not to enjoy it and wash afterwards (purify oneself from the pollution) jewish-Christian Cere License Info Pre-Nuptials S in the middle ages were done by arrangement Most of the time the man and women did not know each other prior to their wedding The involved a dowry and a ceremony beginning at the chute door and proceeding into the church After the couple were married there were few reasons for divorce which were strictly adhered to Over time s have carried on similar traditions and have also changed to involve the man and woman in deciding who they want to marry and most importantly: LOVE BIBLIOGRAPHY Amt Emilie Women's Lives in Medieval York Routledge:1993 Spanish Ceremony Affordable Photography Catholic Ceremony "Paul's treatment both of illicit sex outside of (porneia) and of marital sex itself was influenced by his conviction that the end of the world was imminent." "The great Biblical exegete Origen (ca A.D 185-253/55) and the anonymous author of the Gnostic Gospels according to the Egyptians for example believed that Adam and Eve had been innocent of sexual temptation or even sexual feelings in Paradise." the acceptance of passion within matrimony did not quite sanction loving someone as the romanticists did just because feelings were there The beloved had to possess a sterling character that predisposed to love In the nineteenth century the first manuals published in the United States focused on the qualities deemed essential to : religious constitutional and physical moral and characterological An ideal husband for example was religious sound of wind and limbs and the recipient of no black marks for "idleness intemperate use of intoxicating drinks smoking chewing sniffing tobacco taking opium licentiousness gambling swearing and keeping late hours at night." An ideal wife embodied the four virtues of piety purity submissiveness and domesticity Alice Stephenson 2734 Mountain View W Tocoma. The sources I read indicated that in the past anything of a bride's was lucky--gloves flowers garters etc It was said that a man who gave his love the garter of a bride would be guaranteed faithfulness The guests were so eager to get the garter often the bride would be accosted at the altar by men who stole it from her Smart brides began having men compete for the garter--usually a foot or horse race Also many would give out small colored ribbons called "favours" to guests as an attempt to avoid being turned upside down by men eager for their garter I've also read that the guests would sit at the end of the bed with their backs to the bride and groom Men would throw the bride's stocking over their shoulder and try to hit her nose while women would do the same for the groom Those with good aim were the next to be married Sound like a fun wedding night? Don't laugh with your mouth full or sup up your potage noisily Don't leave your spoon in the dish or on its side but clean your spoon Let no dirt off your fingers soil the cloth Don't put into the dish bread that you have once bitten Dry your mouth before you drink Don't call for a dish once removed or spit on the table: that's rude Don't scratch. There were many reasons for prohibiting a One reason was consanguinity if the two were too closely related If the boy or the girl had taken a monastic or religious vow the was also prohibited Sometimes widows or widowers took vows of celibacy on the death of their spouse and later regretted doing so when they could not remarry Other reasons which also prohibited but were not grounds for a divorce were rape adultery and incest A couple could also not be married during a time of fasting such as lent or advent Nor could a couple be married by someone who had killed someone (Rice) In all though not condoned or accepted by the Medieval Church for purposes other than procreation sex was and is a natural necessary often experimental element in life; thus contraception follows not far behind as a vital part of sexual practices in a time of food shortages and other devastating hardships characteristic of the Middle Ages Consequently Medieval women appear justified in dabbling in the "womanly arts (Labarge 35)," not only to save or preserve their existing families but also to exert some kind of control over their bodies and over their lives as. Jewish Ceremony Jewish-Christian Cere License Info. Next the priest blessed the ring Only one ring was used given by the man to the woman The ring was sprinkled with holy water the bridegroom took the ring and moved it so that it came to be placed in turn on the bride's thumb index finger and long finger - where it stayed This was accompanied by the priest (or the bridegroom) saying: "In the name of the Father - and the Son - and the Holy Spirit" Non-Scandinavian rituals have different wordings and movements where the ring would end on what we call the ring finger Now the priest would bless the couple after which the whole party moved into the church According to some rituals the couple held burning candles in their hands during the procession Mackenzie-Smith 9600 Business Park Dr Suite 2 Truckee. "i have found the lever and seen that latch of that cave; occasionally reached even the crystalline bed In fact I have danced up to it and back frequently and rather well; yet never have known rest upon it My eyes I have feasted richly on those gleaming walls and with upturned gaze to the medallion vault and keystone full eagerly have I destroyed my sight on the ornaments up there they are so bespangled with Excellence The little sun giving windows often have sent their rays into my heart." - Gottfried von Strassborg Tristan Past Times 280 Summer Boston MA 02210-1182 1-800-242-1020 For paper products parchment invitations. Sorry we just need to make sure you're not a robot For best results please make sure your browser is accepting cookies. (Click here to go to huge section on Medieval Celtic & Norse ceremonies handfasting law of etc ) (TOP OF PAGE) GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO HOME PAGE) Law Sex and Christian Society in Medieval Europe One advantage we have today is the acceptance of divorce People today can get divorced for practically any reason In the middle ages there were few reasons the wedding could be dissolved One reason was if either the man or woman were not of legal age 12 for girls and 14 for boys If the husband or wife had previously made a religious or monastic vow or were not Christian the would be dissolved The last reason a could end was if the woman not the man was incapable of sexual relations (Rice) National culture ser nacional (national being) cultura rioplatense cultura gauchesca cultura criolla (creole culture) In Argentina the word creole often has a different connotation than in the rest of Latin America Culture of Armenia Identification The designation "Armenia" applies to different entities: a "historical" Armenia the Armenian plateau the 1918–1920 U.S Culture of Aruba Identification Aruba is a multicultural island society with Caribbean and Latin American features.
Mediaeval Miscellanea 6530 Spring Valley Drive Alexandria VA 22312 (703) 642 - 1740. Identification Gallia Belgica was the Romans' name for the northern part of Gaul the northern limit of their empire Culture of Belize Identification Previously called British Honduras the country now known as Belize derives its name from one of two historical sources: Maya root words or the surname of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace who maintained a camp near present-day Belize City in the seventeenth century Culture of Benin Identification Before 1975 the Republic of Benin was known as Dahomey its French colonial name Culture of Bermuda Identification Bermuda is named after Juan de Bermudez a Spanish explorer who first sighted the uninhabited islands probably. " Simultaneously with the rise at the opening of the twelfth century of this elite tradition of Arabized European poetry the 'cult of the dame' likewise 'following the Arab precedent' also suddenly appears Thus we know have evidence of an unbroken though variously modified aristocratic tradition of mystically toned erotic lore extending from India not only eastward as far as to Lady Murasaki's sentimental Fujiwara court in Kyoto but also westward into Europe " - Joseph Campbell Creative Mythology In D-FW Greater Metroplex & Looking Affordable Wedding Photography? What do you think of my site! Is anyone reading this? Click here! Just e-mail to let me know anyone is interested in this stuff You don't have to write much Just "read it." (Top OF PAGE) (GO BACK TO CEREMONIES) (GO BACK TO.